Guide for Authors

In the name of GOD


Instruction for authors 

 Instruction for authors pdf file Download


Thank you for choosing to publish your work with us. Immunoregulation publishes original articles, reviews, rapid communications, and letters to the editor pertinent to the overlapping areas of immunoregulation. These instructions will ensure we have everything required so your paper can move through peer review, production and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read them and follow the instructions as closely as possible. If you have any queries, please don’t hesitate to contact us by E-mail (


Contents List

  • ™ Manuscript Submission
  • ™ Online Submission
  • ™ Type of Articles
  • ™ Manuscript preparation
  • ™ Cover Letter
  • ™ Ethic
  • ™ Peer Review Process
  • ™ Proofs
  • ™ Submission fee
  • ™ Copyright and authors’ rights


™ Manuscript Submission

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that contains nothing that is abusive, defamatory, libelous, obscene, fraudulent, or illegal; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out, and if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.


™ Online Submission

This Journal accepts only manuscripts through the online submission system. It is easy to use and easy to track, thus by conducting all steps electronically, your submission will be expedient. Contributors can submit via our website. Once you submit an article, it will be forwarded to one of the editors and afterwards to at least two peer-reviewers. The author will be notified of the submission process by means of E-mail. Please note that Immunoregulation screen manuscripts for unoriginal material. By submitting your manuscript to Immunoregulation you are agreeing to any necessary originality checks your manuscript may have to undergo during the peer-review and production processes.


™ Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:

 Ø One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

• E-mail address

• Full postal address

Ø All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain: 

  • Cover letter 
  • Abstract 
  • Keywords 
  • Main manuscripts (including figures and tables) 
  • Supplementary file (if there is any file)


Ø Further considerations

• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'

• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa

• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)


™ Type of Articles

This Journal publishes research articles, review articles, meta-analyses, invited review articles, case reports, and letters to the editor.


  • Ø Original Research articles

The main part of each issue of the Immunoregulation is devoted to original research papers that should describe significant and original observations that can be critically evaluated and if necessary, repeated. They should be arranged as follows: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgement, References, Tables, Figure legends and Figures.


  • Ø Preliminary Studies/Case Reports

Case reports will be considered only if they represent a significant advance in diagnostic methods, therapy, and prognosis or highlight substantial scientific advances in understanding the mechanism(s) of the disease process. They should be prefaced by a brief introduction, highlighting the main message, and their discussion should be confined to unusual aspects, not a major review of the literature. They should be arranged on follows: Title page, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, References, and comprising up to four printed pages including all references and display items; appropriate statistical analyses should be included.


  • Ø Short communication (reports)

These are short manuscripts that have important and generally conclusionary data on a specific issue. They should contain up to 4000 words and should contain a structured abstract of 200 words maximum. Short reports should comprise sections of Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion with not more than 2 tables or figures and up to 20 references. 


  • Ø Letters to the Editor

Letters to the editor will be considered if they give significant comments on recent articles published in Immunoregulation or they contain relevant preliminary data providing new insights. Letters need no abstract and must cite the previous article in this Journal that is being discussed, and should have maximum length 400 words, one table or figure and a maximum of 10 references.


  • Ø Review articles

Anyone wishing to write a review for the journal should first contact the editors. Review articles, solicited and unsolicited, are actively encouraged and should be composed of systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to diagnostic topics. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis.


™ Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be in Microsoft Word (2007 up to newer versions) in English and should be prepared in the style of the journal and in accordance with the uniform Requirement for Manuscript Submitted to Biomedical Journals proclaimed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), a copy of which can be found at

The manuscript should be typed double -spaced, using the font Times New Roman size 12 for the body, size 12 bold and Italic for subheadings, size 12 bold for headings and size 14 bold for the title. All components of the manuscript must appear within a single electronic file and all pages should be numbered in the bottom right hand corner starting with the title page. Manuscripts not conforming to journal style will be returned to the authors.


r Title Page

The title page should include (state):

• A concise and informative title: Capitalize the initial of each word except prepositions with less than three letters.

• The name(s) of the author(s): Full name of all authors should be mentioned.

• The affiliation(s) and address (es) of the author(s): Author’s affiliation containing: Department (or research center), University, City, and Country.

• The number of text pages; tables; figures

• A short running head (50 characters or less)

• Corresponding author(s): Address, telephone, fax number, and E-mail should be written.

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the E-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.


Abstract and Keywords

Each paper must begin with an abstract that summarizes the results obtained and the conclusions drawn. It should not exceed 250 words. Abstract should be structured as below:

Background, Materials/Patients and Methods, Results and Conclusions.

A list of 3-8 keywords is to be provided directly below the abstract. Keywords should express the precise content of the manuscript, as they are used for indexing purposes.


 Framework of a research article

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Article body generally includes Introduction Materials/Patients and Methods, Results, Discussion and References.


  • Ø Introduction

Introduction should explain the purpose of the study and provides the specific reasons for undertaking the investigation, and the logical reason to conduct and write the article and the research question or the hypothesis is described in detail. The size of the introduction should be curtailed in comparison to the discussion. . Exhaustive reviews of the literature should be avoided and no attempt should be made to indicate the results obtained. The reference numbers should appear in text consecutively.


  • Ø Materials/Patients and Methods

Procedures used should be given in sufficient detail to permit the repetition of the work by others. However, published procedures should be briefly summarized and only described in detail if they have been substantially modified. If an apparatus is used, its manufacturer’s name and address should be given in parentheses. If a drug is used, its generic name, dose and route of administration must be given. Statistical method must be mentioned and specify any general computer program used.


  • Ø Results

Findings that include multiple informational points must be presented in the form of text, tables and graphs. In this section the findings should be described without discussion of their significance and should be concise and clear and explain to the reader an abstract from tables and figures. The contents of the tables should not be all repeated in the text. Instead, a reference to the table number may be given. Subsections should be used to clarify the expression of the results. When there are few findings or a simple result, instead of tables and figures, the text itself should appear in the context.


  • Ø Discussion

This should emphasize the present findings and their differences or similarities with other work done in the field by other researcher. Results should be compatible with the objectives of the study. Emphasize the new and important aspects and hypotheses of the study, the conclusions and the suggestions.  Data or other instances presented at the introduction or results should not be repeated in detail in this section.


  • Ø Acknowledgments

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be covered in the acknowledgment section. Acknowledgements include information on grants received and expression of appreciation to all who have helped the researcher in material and spiritual forms (technical, writing, etc…).


  • Ø References

The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the bibliographic information. References should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. References should be formatted in “Vancouver” style. Listed below, are sample references to a journal article, and a book respectively, in the correct format (In the case of seven or more authors, the names of the first six authors should be listed followed by et al.).



Reference to a journal publication:

Ghazanfari T, Faghihzadeh S, Aragizadeh H, Soroush MR, Yaraee R, Mohammad Hassan Z, et al. Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods. Arch Iran Med. 2009;12(1):5-14.

Reference to a book:

Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, ‎Shiv Pillai. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier Saunders; 2015.p. 147-49.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

Moallem SA, Balali Mood K. Opioids and opiates. In: Mozayani A, Raymon LP, editors. Handbook of drug interactions: A clinical and forensic guide. 1st ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc; 2004.p. 123-149.

Reference to a website:

Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK. aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/, 2003 (accessed 13.03.03).


  • Ø Tables

Tables should be self-explanatory, clearly arranged and supplemental to the text. Tables should provide easier understanding and not duplicate information already included in the text or figures. Tables should submit as editable text and not as images. The title of the table should appear above it. A detailed description of its contents and footnotes should be given below the body of the table. They have a short title, and its column should have a heading. Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text and also must be included at the end of the manuscript. Tables in the word file should be prepared as separate file separated by page break (each table on a separate page). Each table should have borders with normal style.


  • Ø Figures

Figures should be utilized only if they augment understandability of the text. The captions should comprise a brief title and a description and should be placed below. All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. Figure 1(A), Figure 1(B)). Figures and captions must be included at the end of the manuscript and also submitted as separate files in the form of TIFF (.tif), JPEG (.jpg), PNG (.png). Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Authors should declare in the cover letter that all figures of their manuscripts are original. Resolution should be 300 dpi for a 3*2 inch figure.


  • Ø Nomenclature, Units and abbreviations

Internationally accepted units (International System of Units), symbols, and abbreviations must be used. Standard abbreviations may be used without definition. Non-standard abbreviations must be spelled out the first time they are used, followed by the abbreviated form in parentheses.

Drug names should be the official or approved names; trade names or common names may be given in brackets where the drug is first mentioned. The manufacturer's name and address must be given. The doses of the drugs should be given as unit weight/unit body weight, e.g. mmol/kg or mg/kg. Concentrations should be given in terms of molarity (eg. nM or µM), or as unit weight/unit volume solution (eg. mg/l) stating whether the weight refers to the salt or the active component of the drug. The molecular weight, inclusive of water of crystallization, should be stated if doses are given as unit weight.


™ Cover Letter

This letter should be uploaded online as a word file. The author should state that the manuscript has not been and will not be published or submitted elsewhere. The financial disclosure should be declared. The letter must include a statement declaring that the study complies with current ethical considerations. Authors reporting experimental studies on human subjects must include a statement of assurance in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript reading that: (1) informed consent was obtained from each patient included in the study and (2) the study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki.


™ Conflicts of interest

Authors should disclose, at the time of submission, information on financial conflicts of interest or other interests that may influence the manuscript. Authors should declare sources of funding for the work undertaken. The authors are responsible for the whole scientific content as well as the accuracy of the bibliographic information.


™ Policy and ethics

Upon acceptance for publication of an article in Immunoregulation, the author tacitly agrees to make available any materials used in the published experiments, or novel or natural products disclosed in the article that are not commercially available, so that qualified investigators may confirm the observations.

All manuscripts reporting the results of experimental investigations involving human subjects should include a statement confirming the informed consent was obtained from each subject or subject’s guardian. All animal or human studies should be used after approval of the experimental protocol by a local ethics committee.


™ Peer Review Process

All submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and editorial approval. Articles will be sent to at least 2 reviewers. Authors are encouraged to suggest names of three expert reviewers, but selection remains a prerogative of the Editor. Authors have the right to communicate to the editor if they do not wish their manuscript to be reviewed by a particular reviewer because of potential conflicts of interest. Authors are usually notified within 2 months about the acceptability of their manuscript. Once receiving reviewers comments, authors are requested to send the revised article, and a copy of their reply to the reviewers, including the comment and explaining the replies to questions and changes made to the revised version within two weeks. No article is rejected unless negative comments are received from at least two reviewers.


™ Proofs

Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. Galley proofs should be returned within 72 hours from receipt.


™ Submission fee

There is no submission fee and page charges for publication in Immunoregulation. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of Immunoregulation and may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the written permission of the editor.


™ Supplemental online material

Authors are encouraged to submit animations, movie files, sound files or any additional information for online publication.


™ Reproduction of copyright material

If the authors wish to include any material in their manuscript in which they do not hold copyright, they must obtain written permission from the copyright owner, prior to submission. Such material may be in the form of text, data, table, illustration, photograph, line drawing, audio clip, video clip, film still, and screenshot, and any supplemental material you propose to include.


™ Copyright and authors' rights

To assure the integrity, dissemination, and protection against copyright infringement of published articles, authors will be asked to assign the journal, via a Publishing Agreement, the copyright in article. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of Immunoregulation and may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the written permission of the editor.


™ Free article access

Authors will receive free access to their article on journal website online.


In Immunoregulation references should be cited according to the Vancouver reference style. Please use Endnote or similar reference managing software to insert the references. Using MS Word References tab to insert the references in the main document is highly preferred and recommended.

In-text citations

  • A citation is an acknowledgement in your text of references that support your work. It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.
  • In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of the essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets. This applies to references in text, tables and figures.
  •  The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited.  A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. e.g.  Smith [10] has argued that...
  • The original number assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the text.
  • When multiple references are cited at a given place in the text, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive. Use commas (without spaces) to separate non-inclusive numbers in a multiple citation e.g. [2,3,4,5,7,10] is abbreviated to [2-5,7,10].
  • Do not use a hyphen if there are no citation numbers in between that support your statement e.g. [1-2].
  • The placement of citation numbers within text should be carefully considered e.g. a particular reference may be relevant to only part of a sentence. As a general rule, reference numbers should be placed outside full stops and commas and inside colons and semicolons. For examples: There have been efforts to replace mouse inoculation testing with invitro tests, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assays [57,60] or polymerase chain reaction [20-22] but these remain experimental.


Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials, Multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication.

Reference Type

In-text example

Reference list example

One author

The book, “Secrets from the black bag”,

by Butler [1] shows that ...


Butler [1] purported ‘...’

1. Butler SW.Secrets from the Black Bag. London: The Royal College of General Practitioners; 2005.

Two to six authors

‘... needed to influence policy.’ [2]


Cheers, Darracott and Lonne have highlighted the fact that ‘...’ [2]

2. Cheers B, Darracott R, Lonne B. Social care practice in rural communities. Sydney: The Federation Press; 2007.

Six or more authors

Professionals in collaboration [3]

3. Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, Crowther CA, Gulmezoglu AM, Hodnett ED et al. A Cochrane pocketbook: Pregnancy and childbirth. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.

No author

‘ not die from the disease [4]

4. A guide for women with early breast cancer. Sydney: National Breast Cancer; 2003.

Multiple works by the same author

The main clinical and research interests of Dr Marilyn Campbell [5-6] are focused on ...

5. Campbell MA. A is for anxiety: A parent’sguide to managing anxious children. Brisbane:PostPressed;2007.

6. Campbell MA. Anthony the shy alien. Brisbane: Post Pressed; 2006.

Different Editions

What has become known as the “Bible of General Practice” in Australia [7]...

7. Murtagh J. John Murtagh’s General practice. 4th ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd; 2007. An edition number is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition

Edited book

In all cases, it is important to note the outer diameter of the tube [8] ...

8.  Brooks A, Mahoney P, Rowlands B, editors. ABC of tubes, drains, lines and frames. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.

Book in a series

The binding of ligand to most seven- transmembrane (STM) G-protein- coupled receptors leads to changes in the coupling of G proteins to the receptor [9] ...

Name of book = Chemokine receptors Title of series = Methods in enzymology

9. Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York (NY): Academic Press; 1997. P. 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288).

Electronic book – entire book

Bartlett concludes that [10]...

10. Bartlett A. Breastwork: Rethinking breastfeeding [monograph online]. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press; 2005 [cited 2009 Nov 10]. Available from: NetLibrary

Translation of a book

Luria discovers that [11] ...

11. Luria AR. The mind of a mnemonist [L. Solotaroff, trans]. New York: Avon Books; 1969.

Chapter in an edited book

As discussed by Rowlands and Haine [12]


12. Rowlands TE, Haine LS. Acute limb ischaemia. In: Donnelly R, London NJM, editors. ABC of arterial and venous disease. 2nd ed. West Sussex. Blackwell Publishing; 2009.

Chapter in a book

...due to endometriosis [13]...

13. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynaecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p.1103-33.

Need to enter the Chapter information and page numbers manually

Chapter from an electronic book

Darwin believes that the natural selection [14] ...

14. Darwin C. On the Origin of Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life [internet]. London: John Murray; 1859. Chapter 5, Laws of Variation. [cited 2010 Apr 22]. Available from:

Persian Book

Rafeei believes that the natural selection [12] ...

12. Rafeei T. [Ritmic movements and games: Coaching, therapists and families manuals (Persian)]. Tehran: Danzheh Publication; 2013, pp:1-61.



Dictionary or Encyclopedia

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


‘is defined as ... [15]

15. Stedman’s medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore:Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia; p.119-20.

Note:  Include the defined topic – e.g. apraxia

Dictionary (online)

‘is defined as ... [16]

16.  Stedman’s medical dictionary. *Internet+. 26th

ed.  Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia;

p.119 -20. [cited 2009 Nov 11]. Available from:


‘Hanrahan has advocated that ...’ [17]

17. Brookman F. Hair care products. In:  McDonough J, Egolf K, Reid JV, editors. The Advertising Age encyclopedia of advertising. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn; 2003. vol 2 p. 703-08



Journal Articles

Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal – abbreviated Publication year, month, day (month & day only if available); volume(issue):pages

Note: Journal titles may be abbreviated according to the style used in the PubMed database. Go to the PubMed Journals database site: to look up journal abbreviations (to find the full journal name) or journal names in full (to find the journal abbreviation). Choose the Journals in NCBI Databases ( link.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Standard journal article – one author

As highlighted by Snowdon, [18]...

18. Snowdon J. Severe depression in old age. Medicine Today. 2002 Dec;3(12):40-47.

Standard journal article – two authors

McInnes & Bollen [19] have developed a perspective which identifies

19. McInnes D, Bollen J. Learning on the job: metaphors of choreography and the practice of sex in sex-on- premises venues. Venereology 2000; 13(1):27-36.

Standard journal article – three to six authors

By using meta-analysis, Skalsky et al [20] ...

20. Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, Pitlik S, Leibovici L, Paul M. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2008 Mar 29;336(7646):701-4.

Journal article – more than six authors

Hanna et al [21] report in this article that ...

21. Hanna JN, McBride WJ, Brookes DL, Shield J, Taylor CT, Smith IL, Craig SB, Smith GA. Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. Med J Aust. 2006 Nov 20;185(10):562-64.

Journal article – in press

O’Leary [22] states that...

22. O’Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West Australian.  Forthcoming 2005 June

Electronic article – with DOI number

Fletcher & Wagstaff [23] argue that


23. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10(4):427-34. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport. 2009.03.009.

Electronic article

– without DOI number

According the Lemanek [24]...

24. Lemanek K. Adherence issues in the medical management of asthma. J Pediatr Psychol [ Internet]. 1990 [cited 2010 Apr 22];15(4):437-58. Available from:

Enter cited date manually and change medium to internet  or leave as serial online as entered by Endnote

Cochrane Library Review

Results found by Shaw et al [25]...

25. Shaw KA, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet] 2005 [cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from: /frame.html

Article from UQ eReserve


Results found by Shaw [26]...

26. Shaw J. Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Med J Aust [Internet] 2003;179:379-83. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve

Persian Article

Jafari found by Shaw [27]...

27. Jafari Z, Karimi H, Sazmand AH, Malayeri S. [The comparison of handedness between 12-18 year old normal and congenitally deaf students (Persian)]. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2007; 8(1):25-34.



Conference papers

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper – Family name and initials. Title of paper. In: Editor(s) Family name and initials, editor(s). Title of conference; Date of conference;  Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of publication. p. Page numbers.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Published conference paper

This is well documented in the literature. [27]

27. Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC. Degoulet P. Piemme TE, Reinhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992. P. 1561-5

Unpublished conference paper

It has been found that endemic STD’s [28]

28. Bowden FJ, Fairley CK. Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange. Paper presented at: The Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians; 1996 June 24-25; Darwin, Australia.

Conference proceedings

Research [29] supports...

29. Kimura J. Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Note: In the “conference title” field type in “Paper presented at:” and then enter all details of conference including the date and where conference took place.

Enter the place of publication in the “Conference location” field


In the ‘Publisher’ field – enter the place of publication, publisher and the year eg. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.



Newspaper and magazine articles

Elements of the citation

Author(s) – family name and initials. Article title. Newspaper title (edition of paper eg. Weekend edition). Date of publication – year month (3 letter abbreviation) day: Sect. Location eg. A:12 or Business 5 (5 is the page number) column number is applicable eg. col. 1) (Sect = Section)

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Newspaper article with author

“many parents did not feed their babies enough” [30-31]...

30. Purdon F. Colder babies at risk of SIDS.The Courier Mail 2010 Mar8:9

31. Robertson J. Not married to the art. The Courier Mail (Weekend edition). 2010 Mar 6-7:Sect. ETC:15

Newspaper article without author

The counsellors [32]...

32. Meeting the needs of counsellors. The Courier Mail 2001 May 5:22

Magazine article

The findings of the research [33]...

33. Marano HE. Making of a perfectionist. Psychol Today. 2008 Mar-Apr;41:80-86

Electronic newspaper or magazine article

Reports of the extent of damage in Chile [34]...

34. Bajak F. Why Chile dodged Haiti-style ruin. Toronto Star (Canada) [serial online].  2010 Feb 28 [cited 2010 Mar 14]; Sect. News:A14 Available from: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre

Electronic newspaper article on the Internet

The success of the Clem7 tunnel [34]...

35. Drivers told: “Don’t use Clem7 tunnel”.The Courier Mail [Internet]. 2010 Mar 16 [cited2010 Mar 16]; Availablefrom: tunnel/story-e6freon6-1225841179464

36. Sack K. With Medicaid cuts, doctors andpatients drop out. The New York Times [Internet].2010 Mar 16 [cited 2010 Mar 16]; Health:A1.Available




Reports and other Government publications

Elements of a report citation

Author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Total number of pages if applicable eg. 24 p. Report No.: (if applicable)

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example




/Technical report

Climate change [37]...

37.Australia. Parliament. Senate. SelectCommittee on Climate Policy. Climate policyreport. Canberra: The Senate;2009

38.Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.:HETA2000-0139-2824




Elements of the citation for a thesis

Printed Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Online Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis on the internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date – year month day]. Available from: Name of database/web address

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


The research is support by Kay [39] ...

39. Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2007.

Thesis – retrieved from database/internet

The research [40]...

40. Pahl KM. Preventing anxiety and promoting social and emotional strength in early childhood: an investigation of aetiological risk factors [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 24]. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve

Persian Thesis

Bandarianzadeh believed that [41]

41. Bandarianzadeh D. [Evaluation of pregnant women irontherapy in primary health care system at the villages of Kerman city (Persian)]. [MA Thesis] Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 1993, pp: 25–27.




Elements of the citation

Author. Title of publication [type of medium – Internet]. Place of publication (if available): Publisher (if available); Date of publication – year month day (supply year if month and day not available) [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: web address.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Web page - with author

Behaviour medication [41]...

41. Atherton, J. Behaviour modification [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 10; cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from: ehaviour_mod.htm

Webpage – no author

Coping with ADHD [42]...

42. The family impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [Internet] 2009 Nov 1 [updated 2010 Jan 1; cited 2010 Apr 8]. Available from: andlifestyle.asp?sid=192&title=The-Family- Impact-of-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity- Disorder-%28ADHD%29&page=2

Webpage – no date

Memory loss [43]is linked...

43. McCook A. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from:


If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found for a Web site, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited

Webpage – corporate author

Swine flu [44]...

44. Queensland Health. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 19; cited 2010 Apr 7]. Available from: swineflu/

Web Article with DOI

Drug dependence [45]...

45. Degenhardt L, Bohnert KM, Anthony C. Assessment of cocaine and other drug dependence in the general population: ‘Gated’ vs. ‘ungated’ approaches. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2008 Mar 1 [cited 2010 Apr 15]; 93(3):227-232. Available from: 756072/DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.09.024

Web Article with no DOI or feely available on Web

Research shows that diabetes [46]...

46. Merzouk H, Bouchenak M, Loukidi B, Madani S, Prost J, Belleville J. Fetal macrosomia related maternal poorly controlled type 1 diabetes strongly impairs serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition. J Clin Pathol [internet]. 2000 [cited 2010 Apr 15]; 53:917-923. Available from: ull.pdf+html

Image on a webpage

The image of the rash [47]

47. Scarlet Fever Rash Picture (Hardin MD Super Site Sample) [image on the Internet]. 2005 [updated 2008 Feb 1; cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from:



Other Internet Sources:

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


The latest fossil discover [48]...

48. Dirks, P. “Missing Link” fossil discovery in South Africa [podcast on the internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National; 2010 [updated 2010 Apr 9; cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: 0/2868072.htm

Blog Post

The list [49]...

49. East J. New medical journals terms list. 2010 Jan 25 [cited 2010 Apr 20] In: East J. EndNote: EndNote updates at UQ [Internet]. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Library. 2007-2010- . [about 5 screens].Available from: 25/new-medical-journals-term-list/



Personal Communication (oral, written & email)

Personal communication in qualitative studies or any other applications is entered manually in the text of your document. It cannot be done through EndNote. Personal communication should be included in the text of your document – cited in text only.

Personal communication should not be included in your reference list.

It is recommended you get permission from the source/author of your personal communication. Personal communication in the text of your document must include:

  • Date of communication
  • Type of communication – oral, written (eg. Letter, written communication) or email (include email address) Affiliation (university, organisation)- optional  and highest academic degree


In a conversation with a A. B. Smith, MD (April 2010)...


According to a letter by C. D. Jones (Assoc. Prof., Dept of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh, PA) in November 2010... According to C.D. Jones , PhD (written communication, November 2010)...


In-text: In an email from E. Ferguson, PhD ( in August 2010...

Reference List: Ferguson E. How to cite in your assignments [online]. E-mail to Abe Smith ( 2010 Apr 20 [cited 2010 April 28].

Note: It is important to keep a copy of the record.


Elements of the citation

Author. Title of brochure/pamphlet [pamphlet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Pamphlets/Broch ures

As listed in the pamphlet [50] by the...

50. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Medicines and driving [pamphlet]. Sydney: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 1998



Package Inserts (The printed material about the use and effects of the product contained in the package)

Elements of the citation

Name of Medicine [package insert]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Package Insert

One of the side effects [51] listed...

51. Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.


Lecture Notes

Elements of the citation

Lecturer. Title of Lecture [unpublished lecture notes]. Course code: course name, Institution where delivered; lecture given – date lecture given.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Lecture notes

In the lecture given by Smith [52]...

52. Johnson A. Week three: Foucault [unpublished lecture notes]. BESC3009: Relating with Young People, University of Queensland; lecture given 2010 Apr 20.


Video or DVD

Elements of the citation

Author/Producer (producer/director). Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Publication Year. Extent (eg. 1 DVD): physical description – duration, sound, color, size.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Video or DVD

Examination of the neonate [53] revealed...

53. Robinson J (producer). Examination of the term neonate: A family centred approach [DVD]. South Hurstville, NSW: Midwifery Educational Services; 2005. 1 DVD: 37 min., sound, colour, 4¾ in.


Film or Broadcast

Elements of the citation

Producer, Director. Title [type of medium]. Series title. Place of Publication: Distributor; Date released.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Television or radio programs

As seen in the MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [54]

54. The medical profession in the 1990’s *television broadcast]. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. New York, Washington D.C.: Public Broadcasting Service; 1993 Oct 11



Indirect citation/Secondary source

A secondary source/indirect citation:  Is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work. In the list of references provide the details of the author of the work you have read.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Book as a secondary source

Higgins discusses Newman’s research in his work [55] ...

55. Higgins D. Horizons: the poetics and theory of the intermedia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press: 1984

Journal as a secondary source

Clements quoted Chandler in his article [56] ...

56. Clements C. The facts about cocaine (drugs), Science and Children [serial online]. 2007 [cited 2010 Apr 20]; 44(7): 44. Available from: ProQuest


Tables, Figures, Images or Appendices

Elements of the citation

Journal example:

Enter your normal journal reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.

Book example:

Enter your normal book reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Tables, Figures, Images or Appendices

Table 3. Examples of vaccine classes and associated industrial challenges [57].

Table 5. Chocolate related crime: Old Bailey court records [58].

Figure 3. Marconi’s grounded antenna [59].

Please Note: that the table number in these examples would be the table number in your document not the table number in the original document. The original table number must be cited in the reference list. If you change the table title in your document, you must cite the original title of the table in the reference list.

57.Smith J, Lipsitch M, Almond JW.Vaccine production, distribution, access, anduptake. Lancet 2011;378(9789):428-438. Table1, Examples of vaccine classes andassociated industrial challenges; p.429.

58.Grivetti LE. Chocolate, crime, and thecourts: Selected English Trial Documents, 1693-1834.In: Grivetti LE, Shapiro H, editors. Chocolate:History and culture. Hoboken, New Jersey. John Wiley& Sons; 2009. Table 20.1, Chocolate-relatedcrime: Old Bailey court records; p.244.

59.Hong S. Wireless: From Marconi’s black-box to the Audion. London, England. MIT Press; 2001. Figure 1.5, Marconi’s grounded antenna; p. 21.




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Dr. Tooba Ghazanfari,

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, I.R Iran.

Tel: +98-2166418216,

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