The Potential Effects of Scrophularia Striata Boiss on COVID-19

Document Type : Short communication


1 Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

2 Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Microbiology and Virology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Mdicinal Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

4 Rajaei Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Department of Human Genetics, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.

6 Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

7 Department of Immunology and Allergy, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran.


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread worldwide. The exact mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not fully understood. In addition to classical treatment, herbal medicine may effectively manage COVID-19 symptoms and supportive therapy. Scrophularia striata Boiss is a perennial herbaceous plant with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The extract of S. striata Boiss has revealed immunomodulatory effects on reducing T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-5, that may be used to manage allergic diseases and asthma. Scrophularia striata Boiss reduces IL-4, and IL-5 may alleviate allergic diseases and asthma. The ethyl acetate extract of S. striata Boiss inhibits the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and PGE2. Quercetin inhibits proinflammatory mediators while increasing anti-inflammatory mediators. Ethanolic extract of S. striata can significantly reduce NO production in the isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, S. striata Boiss has 3 essential flavonoids: quercetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and nepitrin. Of them, quercetin inhibits TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2, COX-2, and NO, whereas increases anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, S. striata Boiss is recommended for clinical trial studies in patients with COVID-19 and other viral diseases.


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