Document Type : Short communication
Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Microbiology and Virology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Mdicinal Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
Rajaei Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Human Genetics, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.
Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Department of Immunology and Allergy, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread worldwide. The exact mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not fully understood. In addition to classical treatment, herbal medicine may effectively manage COVID-19 symptoms and supportive therapy. Scrophularia striata Boiss is a perennial herbaceous plant with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The extract of S. striata Boiss has revealed immunomodulatory effects on reducing T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-5, that may be used to manage allergic diseases and asthma. Scrophularia striata Boiss reduces IL-4, and IL-5 may alleviate allergic diseases and asthma. The ethyl acetate extract of S. striata Boiss inhibits the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and PGE2. Quercetin inhibits proinflammatory mediators while increasing anti-inflammatory mediators. Ethanolic extract of S. striata can significantly reduce NO production in the isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, S. striata Boiss has 3 essential flavonoids: quercetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and nepitrin. Of them, quercetin inhibits TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2, COX-2, and NO, whereas increases anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, S. striata Boiss is recommended for clinical trial studies in patients with COVID-19 and other viral diseases.