Inflammation is a protective response that occurs in response to tissue injury and microbial infections. A significant advancement has been made in our understanding of inflammation, which is one of the most fundamental concepts in medicine. Immunoregulation of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases depends on Th17/Treg balance. Costimulatory receptors, cytokines, metabolic pathways, and the intestinal microbiome all affect this balance in inflammatory conditions. Maintaining a functional equilibrium between these two subsets is very important to design an appropriate and effective treatment strategy.